Visual Aftereffects and Sensory Nonlinearities from a single Statistical Framework
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. Special Issue on Perceptual Illusions 2015

Supplemental Data, Code, and Papers

Valero Laparra & Jesús Malo
Universitat de Valéncia. Spain

Visual AfterEffects (animated examples):
Why do we have these illusions?
Predictions via Sequential Principal Curves Analysis:  motion,   color,   texture
Conclusion: your brain is not fooling you but doing its best in each context !
Data: movies, images, colors
Code (reproducible results)
Generation of aftereffects
Classical explanation example: motion aftereffect from divisive normalization
Proposed explanation: aftereffects from SPCA
Infomax and error minimization in visual textures via SPCA
General purpose toolboxes: SPCA, BasicVideoTools, ColorLab

Aftereffects are visual illusions occurring when the sensory system is put into a particular operation regime driven by the environment (e.g. after prolonged exposure to specific moving patterns). When this enviroment changes (e.g. when the motion stops) new stimuli (e.g. the static patterns) are perceived in unusual way (e.g. illusory motion in reverse direction). Movies below, generated with this Matlab code, show new renderings of classical motion, color and texture after-effects. The code allows you to modify the parameters of the examples (speed, spatial frequency, contrast, luminance and tristimulus values...).

ATTENTION:  in the animated examples look at the fixation point (a cross in the center) and keep looking at the cross after the change in the scene. The change will happen about 10 to 15 secs after starting the animation so that your visual system adapts.
Despite the code allows an accurate stimuli control, and these illustrations are good to point out the general trends of the effects, they are not meant to be accurate psychophysics: different factors such as monocular fixation, spatial size of the images (or observation distance), context (e.g. full screen versus embedded reproduction), calibration (your display is not calibrated according to the parameters used in the generation), and even fixating at a different point, may help or impair the strength of the effects.

  • Examples of STATIC MOTION AFTEREFFECT: illusory motion of static patterns in reverse direction after adaptation

Example 1:  vertical motion, noise sequence

Adapting Environment Test (Static Pattern)
Animated version

Example 2:  horizontal motion, noise sequence

Adapting Environment Test (Static Pattern) Animated version
t k

Example 3: horizontal motion, natural texture

Adapting Environment Test (Static Pattern) Animated version
t t


Example 1 (vertical motion, noise sequence)
shows that the slow moving pattern generates a stronger reverse motion aftereffect.
The aftereffect comes from the fact that the sensors tuned to zero and slow positive motion are attenuated by the adapting sequence. Therefore, a static pattern presented afterwards (that stimulates slow negative, zero and slow positive sensors) elicits a smaller-than-usual response in zero and slow positive sensors. As a result, the stimulus is seen as moving with slow negative motion. Attenuation in sensors tuned to zero motion comes from the fact that activity in certain sensors reduces the gain of other sensors [Morgan et al. 06, Stocker and Simoncelli 09].
The stronger aftereffect produced by the slow motion pattern reveals that sensors tuned to slow motion attenuate more strongly the sensors tuned to static patterns. The activity of sensors tuned to higher speeds does not affect zero motion sensors as much leading to weaker aftereffect.
The question is: where this neighborhood interaction comes from?. Why slow motion sensors attenuate the zero motion sensor more than the sensors tuned to high speed?

Examples 2 and 3 (noise and natural textures with horizontal motion)
illustrate the generality of the effect: it happens in any direction, and it is kind of independent of the texture. The sequence with natural texture was generated from a luminance calibrated image database used to train our statistical learning technique.

  • Examples of COLOR AFTEREFFECTS: illusory contours of shifted hue emerge in the images seen after adaptation

Example 1:  simple configuration
(Joseph Albers-like configuration)

Adapting Environment Test (strictly stationary hue)
Animated version
s t

Example 2:  patches of diverse reflectance

Adapting Environment Test (average hue is stationary) Animated version
d k

Example 3: horizontal motion, natural texture

Adapting Environment Test (stationary hue) Animated version
k a


Example 1
shows that while the central part of the test image is achromatic (and not limited by any contour), color and contours of the scene change after adaptation: an illusory cyan/blueish patch emerges around the fixation point.
This aftereffect arises because adaptation to a yellowish color leads to shifts in the nonlinear responses of the Red-Green and Yellow-Blue sensors [Krauskopf and Gegenfurtner 92, Fairchild 05]. After this adaptation, stimuli that would be considered to be white in usual conditions (with unshifted curves) is perceived as greenish-blue. Equivalent shifts (but in different chromatic directions) happen after adaptation to different colors.
The question is: why the nonlinearities shift in this specific way?

Examples 2 and 3 illustrate the generality of the effect: illusory contours emerge in more complex scenes with diverse  reflectance and with natural texture. The scene with natural texture was generated from a color calibrated image database used to train our statistical learning technique.

  • Examples TEXTURE AFTEREFFECTS: local blindness in a physically stationary texture after adaptation to  appropriate (similar) textures

Example 1:  parametric stimuli (Gabors and Sinusoids)
  • 1.1 Similar frequency and orientation
  • 1.2 Different frequency but different otrientation
  • 1.3 Different frequency and orientation
Adapting Environments Tests (stationary contrast)
Animated versions
s t
s t
s t

xample 2:  non-parametric stimuli (Principal Components of a calibrated Natural Image dataset)
  • 2.1 Similar frequency and orientation
  • 2.2 Different frequency but different otrientation
  • 2.3 Different frequency and orientation
Adapting Environment Test (stationary contrast) Animated version
d k

k k
k k


Example 1 shows that while the physical contrast of the test image is stationary (the same in center and periphery), it changes differently after adaptation to the high contrast texture. Note that the strength of the induced blindness around the fixation point depends on the correspondence between frequency and orientation of the previous and post scenes: if the frequency content is very similar the affected zone virtually disappears. That is not the case in other situations.

This aftereffect arises because sensors tuned to certain frequency are attenuated by the activity of sensors tuned to similar frequencies
[Blakemore 69, Barlow 90, Watson 97]. As a result, after the presentation of a high contrast pattern, if a similar pattern is presented, the response of the sensors tuned to this second pattern is weaker than usual (under no adaptation). Therefore, this second pattern is seen as having less contrast, or eventually, not seen at all.
The stronger aftereffect produced between patterns of similar frequency reveals that sensors tuned to closer frequencies interact (attenuate each other) more than sensors tuned to distant frequencies.
The question (as in the motion case) is: where this local neighborhood interaction comes from?.

Example 2 shows that the same trends happen for the linear Principal Components of natural images: even though they are statistically decorrelated, they are not perceptually independent. Some additional processing is necessary to make them perceptually independent.

Why do we have these illusions?:
Better use normative models based on unsupervised nonparametric learning!

A description of the phenomena is possible by modeling the empirical nonlinear responses in the mechanisms tuned to motion [Morgan 06], texture [Watson 97], and color [Abrams 07]. For example, this Matlab code reproduces how divisive normalization [Simoncelli and Heeger 98, Carandini and Heeger 12] leads to mutual attenuation of motion sensors tuned to neighbor frequencies, and hence to misperceptions of motion of static objects after adaptation to moving patterns (see section 1.2 of the paper). Nevertheless this empirical description does not explain why the brain works in this apparently dysfunctional manner. That is the classical limitation of descriptive models versus normative models (what versus why) [Dayan05].

Following the seminal suggestions in [Barlow90] about explanations based on information maximization (a truly normative explanation), multidimensional equalization has been proposed as a convenient way to address adaptation and aftereffects [Clifford00,Clifford02]. Unfortunately they did not propose unsupervised techniques, but assumed specific parametric mechanisms based on centering and scaling (a sort of divisive normalization).

Rather than using specific functional forms for the adaptation, in this work we derive the behavior from a recently proposed unsupervised non-parametric learning technique: The Sequential Principal Curves Analysis (SPCA) [Laparra et al. 12]. SPCA effectively performs the multidimensional equalization previously suggested, but not implemented, in the statistically inspired literature addressing aftereffects [Clifford00, Clifford02]. We argue that unsupervised learning is the appropriate way to focus on the principle behind the aftereffects: as we assume no parametric form, it is more clear that the behavior emerges from the specific optimization strategies and not from an a priori response model. Moreover, unlike other unsupervised learning techniques, SPCA is more suited to answer the goal question because it can be easily tuned to different principles such as  information maximization  (as non-linear ICA) and also error minimization in limited resolution scenarios (as in optimal Vector Quantization). See Section 4 in the Paper to see the equalization capabilities of SPCA on visual textures. The illustrations below show how equalization leads to attenuations and shifts in the responses that induce the aftereffects.

Our results (reproducible using this SPCA implementation in these numerical experiments over these natural video and calibrated image databases) show that what appear to be dysfunctional illusions are actually by-products of optimality principles such as maximum information extraction or error minimization in the representation.

Predictions using Sequential Principal Curves Analysis

SPCA identifies relevant directions (curves) is datasets. SPCA is a generalization of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) by allowing the straight lines of PCA to be changed by non-Euclidean curves. As the principal directions in PCA, the principal curves in SPCA can be interpreted as sensors. Given a stimulus, the responses of SPCA sensors are given by the projection of the stimulus onto the curves. The full description on how these curves and projections is computed can be found in this Technical Report. Given the fact that length along the principal curves is measured using a PDF dependent non-Euclidean metric, this kind of projection performs a nonlinear multidimensional equalization.
Identification of curvilinear coordinates and multidimensional histogram equalization using SPCA. Left panel represents the data and coordinates at the input domain, and the right panel represents the data and coordinates at the SPCA transformed domain. Gray regions represent the underlying data distribution or PDF, and the lines in bold style represent the projections of the highlighted sample x onto the first, second, and third Principal Curves. Using SPCA with information maximization criterion this implies histogram uniformization (see section 4 of the Paper for more details and the Technical Report for full details). This means transforming the nonuniform curvilinear coordinates into a cartesian grid.

Equalization of the PDF corresponding to the natural stimuli leads to expansions and contractions of the input domain in the response domain. This means uneven sensitivity of the SPCA sensors in different regions of the input space.
Aftereffects come from changes in the operation regime of a sensor in different environments. The pictures below illustrate how different spatial texture in the background or different spectral illumination change the shape of the PDF and (assuming the equalization goal) change the operation regime.

ADAPTATION OF TEXTURE SENSORS I: Different directions in the image space represent the presence of certain elementary patterns of bigger and bigger amplitude (or contrast). Bigger and bigger stimulation of a linear sensor tuned to certain pattern implies moving along a certain line. If the sensor is nonlinear this means moving in nonuniform steps or along a curve. If this stimulation is done in different environments (i.e. on top of different backgrounds), it can be seen as equivalent departures from different points of the space. Different points of the space can also be seen as different stimulation in sensors tuned to similar or disimilar patterns. The figure below illustrates this concept: the same stimulation along the green curve/dimension at different locations along the red curve (different environments).  In this case, the frequency of the background is similar to the frequency preferred by the considered sensor (severe masking situation). Different environments defined as different locations in the linear representation space is the key concept in the motion and texture experiments (figures 4 and 7 of the Paper).

ADAPTATION OF TEXTURE SENSORS II: Equalization of the image manifold implies different deformations in different points of the space. This implies that responses to the same Euclidean departures in different environments lead to different lengths along the principal curves (the responses of SPCA sensors). (a) equivalent stimulations in different backgrounds in the input domain, (b) SPCA transform. (c) Associated responses (length along the green principal curve in each case). This leads to a reduction in response/visibility in environment 2 with regard to environment 1. Figure 12 in the Paper shows that transform from (a) to (b) is the actual behavior of SPCA on texture samples.
ADAPTATION OF COLOR SENSORS I: Different spectral illumination implies a general change of orientation of the data manifold. This change is not always linear [Laparra12]. Similar changes in the manifold arise when reflectance of the environment is biased in some way (e.g. mainly yellowish/reddish objects). In the example below the blue and orange regions represent the color data manifolds in D65 and A illuminations which basically differ in a rotation around the origin towards the yellow end of the Blue-Yellow (BY) direction (shift along the blue curve). What is the perceived hue of a fixed sample (e.g. the sample represented by the open circle) in these different environments?
ADAPTATION OF COLOR SENSORS II: Equalization of the color manifold implies (i) different deformations in different points of the space, and (ii) shifts of what is considered to be the origin of the space. This implies (i) nonlinear responses, and (ii) the response to certain stimulus is interpreted in different way. For instance responses of an opponent mechanism may change from positive to negative hence totally changing the judgement of hue. (a) color data in the input (tristimulus) domain. (b) and (c) SPCA transformed data equalizing the environment 1 or environment 2 manifolds. Note that the highlighted sample (open circle) falls on opposite regions of the space. (d) canonical representation. (e) Associated response in the considered environments. 

Here we applied SPCA to samples from natural videos (3D luminance patches) texture samples (2D luminance patches) and color samples (tristimulus vectors) after they went through the first linear stage of the models of motion, texture, and color sensors  (see [Simoncelli  98] for motion, [Watson 97] for texture, and [Abrams 07, Fairchild 05] for color). Natural movies come from undistorted videos of the standard databases VQEG and LIVE. Natural textures come from the luminance calibrated McGill image database, and natural colors come from the color calibrated IPL image database used in previous spatio-chromatic adaptation papers [Laparra et al. 12, Gutmann et al. 14].

In order to see how motion and texture aftereffects come from signal statistics we computed the response of SPCA sensors tuned to specific spatio-temporal frequency patterns in different environments, i.e. when similar or different sensors have different degrees of activation because additional adapting patterns are present in the scene (biased contrast). In the color case, we computed the response of SPCA sensors with red-green and yellow-blue sensitivities in environments of different chromatic nature (balanced versus biased reflectance set).

In all three cases, different operation regimes were found as a function of the environment (see the different line-styles in the figure below): therefore the reference axes of the perceptual repreentatipon shift!. After-effects arise when stimuli having certain response in the regular regime, have very different (shifted) response in the adapted regime.

  • Predictions of nonlinear responses leading to the MOTION AFTEREFFECT
Responses of SPCA sensors tuned to ft = 0 (static pattern) in environments where other moving patterns are present.
Top panel (1st and 2nd rows): responses with adaptation to vertical speeds. First row displays the response of SPCA tuned for infomax while second row shows the equivalent results for SPCA sensors with minimum representation error. In every row, the vertical speed of the adapting stimulus increases from left to right. Different line styles correspond to the responses in different environments: the solid black line correspond to responses to isolated static stimuli, and the other line styles correspond to responses of the same sensor in environments where there is also a moving pattern of progressively bigger contrast: from the dashed-black line (moving mask with small contrast), to the dashed-red line (moving mask with bigger contrast). The curves are the average over equivalent stimulation (phase and speed sign). Error bars indicate standard deviation.
Bottom panel (3rd and 4th rows): equivalent responses with adaptation to horizontal speeds.
This kind of high attenuation for close frequencies and weak impact of distant frequencies (that comes from the statistics!) is compatible with the reported nonlinearities of motion sensors [Morgan06] and explains the question raised by the motion aftereffect.


  • Predictions of nonlinear responses leading to the TEXTURE AFTEREFFECT

Different contexts (adaptation to different high contrast patterns) lead to different operation regimes of the same texture sensor which are compatible with the frequency and orientation properties of post-adaptation masking.
Figures show the response of a sensor tuned to a particular frequency as a function of the contrast of stimuli of that frequency. Each plot represents the adaptation to a different environment (with similar or different frequencies). Solid black lines correspond to the responses of the considered sensor when the other sensors are not stimulated (in zero contrast adaptation conditions). Progressively lighter lines represent the responses in the regime induced by the adaptation to progresively higher contrast of the adapting stimuli.
When adapting to the stimuli described above (high contrast in the center and zero contrast in the surround), the sensors in the center work according to the red lines while the ones in the periphery work according to the black-solid line. Therefore, when looking at the uniform image the central part of the image seems to disappear (in the first case when frequencies are similar), because the response, or visibility, is strongly reduced, which explains the question in the texture effect

  • Predictions of nonlinear responses leading to the COLOR AFTEREFFECT
A specific context (e.g. adaptation to an environment with restricted hue) leads to shifts in the chromatic responses (from gray to colored curves in the red-green -left- and yellow-blue -center- channels) that explain the shift in perceived hue of post-adaptation outliers. See for instance how achromatic stimuli (zero crossings in the gray curves) tend to cyanish hue after adaptation (red arrows). In both channels the achromatic stimuli lead to negative values, i.e. green and blue: cyan.
Note also that the locus of stimuli corresponding to a balanced range of hues and chromas is shifted to the red (chromatic diagram at the right). As a result, a stimulus otherwise perceived as white (the one highlighted in red) is in the region of the stimuli that correspond to green-blue, which explains the question raised by the color aftereffect.
NOTE 1: The corresponding colors result (transformation of Luo's corresponding colors from CIE A to the artificial world we crated with a subset of reflectances) is not in the paper but it is an equivalent evidence of the SPCA explanation.
NOTE 2: These infomax results (which also reproduce the aftereffect) are not shown in the paper since in the color case it is obvious that the infomax solutions give rise to way too sharp nonlinearities (see [Laparra et al. 12]).

Red-Green channel
Yellow-Blue channel
Corresponding Colors
Error Minimization
b 0 k
Red-Green channel
Yellow-Blue channel
Corresponding Colors


The general trend of the responses and the change of operation regime come from the way samples are distributed. In the case of motion and texture, the general behavior comes from (1) the increased concentration of samples around zero contrast, and (2) the faster decay in the density in some directions in the neighborhood of similar stimuli. In the case of color, the general behavior comes from (1) peak density at achromatic reflectance, and (2) deformation of the tristimulus manifold when considering clustered hues or specific illumination. The specific organization principle implies different saturation nonlinearity in the responses. Both criteria lead to shifts and changes of operation regime that are compatible with the observed aftereffect in all modalities (motion, texture and color). In the case of color, where the theoretical responses were closely compared to the actual responses in [Laparra 12], infomax can be neglected because of the unrealistic sharpness of the response.
It is important to note that these trends were not imposed by using some specific functional form in the response, but emerges from the way data distribution changes in different environments and by optimal encoding strategies of the data.

We can conclude that what appears to be a dysfunctional behavior actually comes from clever information processing: the system uses the optimal operation regime in each environment. Your visual brain is not fooling you, but trying to do its best in a dynamic environment!. 


Paper on illusions and the companion technical report on SPCA:

  • V. Laparra, and J. Malo, "Visual Aftereffects and Sensory Nonlinearities from a Single Statistical Framework" Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. Special Issue on Perceptual Illusions. 2015 
  • V. Laparra, and J. Malo, "The full report on Sequential Principal Curves Analysis" IPL-Technical Report. Universitat de València. 2015  
Related neuroscience papers:
  • J. Malo and J. Gutiérrez V1 non-linear properties emerge from local-to-global non-linear ICA. Network: Comp. Neural Systems. 17(1):  85-102 (2006) 
  • V. Laparra, S. Jimenez, G. Camps, and J. Malo. Nonlinearities and Adaptation of Color Vision from Sequential Principal Curves Analysis, Neural Computation, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 2751–2788, 2012. 
Papers on related statistical techniques:
  • V. Laparra, S. Jimenez, D. Tuia, G. Camps-Valls and J. Malo Principal Polynomial Analysis (PPA). International Journal of Neural Systems, 24(7) Nov. 2014. pd
  • V. Laparra, J. Malo and G. Camps-Valls. Dimensionality Reduction via Regression in Hyperspectral Imagery. IEEE Journal on Selected Topics of Signal Processing. Vol. 9, Num. 9. September 2015. pdf
Other relevant references:
  • Abrams, A., Hillis, J., and Brainard, D. "The relation between color discrimination and color constancy: When is optimal adaptation task dependent?" Neural Computation, 19(10):2610–2637. 2007
  • Barlow , H. "Possible principles underlaying the transformation of sensory messages". Sensory Communication, pp. 217-234, 1961.
  • Barlow, H. “A theory about the functional role and synaptic mechanism of visual aftereffects,” in Vision: Coding and Efficiency, C. Blakemore, Ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1990.
  • Barlow, H. "Redundancy reduction revisited". Network: Computation in Neural Systems, 2001.
  • Blakemore C. and Campbell F.W. "On the existence of neurons in the human visual system selectivity sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images". J. Physiol. 203: 237-60, 1969
  • Carandini M. and Heeger D., “Normalization as a canonical neural computation.” Nature Reviews. Neurosci., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 51–62, 2012.
  • Clifford, C., Webster, M., Stanley, G., Stocker, A., Kohn, A., Sharpee, T., and Schwartz, O. “Visual adaptation: Neural, psychological and computational aspects,” Vision Research, vol. 47, pp. 3125–3131, 2007.
  • Clifford, C., Wenderoth, P., and Spehar, B. (2000), A functional angle on some after-effects in cortical vision, Proc. Roy. Soc. B, 267, 1705–1710
  • Clifford, C, Perceptual adaptation: motion parallels orientation. Trends Cog. Sci. 6(3): 136-143. 2002
  • Coen-Cagli, R., Dayan, P., and Schwartz, O. (2010), Statistical models of linear and nonlinear contextual interactions in early visual processing, in Adv. Neur. Inf. Proc. Syst. NIPS 09'. vol. 22, 369–377
  • Fairchild, M. Color Appearance Models, 2nd Ed. Chichester, UK: Wiley-IS&T, 2005.
  • Krauskopf, J. and Gegenfurtner, K. (1992), Color discrimination and adaption, Vision Res., 32, 11, 2165–2175
  • Mather G, Pavan A, Campana G, Casco C. The motion after-effect reloaded. Trends Cog. Sci. 12(12): 481-487. 2008
  • Morgan, M., Chubb, C., and Solomon, J. (2006), Predicting the motion after-effect from sensitivity loss, Vision Research, 46, 2412–2420
  • Simoncelli, E. and Heeger, D. (1998), A model of neuronal reponses in visual area MT, Vision Research, 38, 5, 743–761
  • Stocker, A. A. and Simoncelli, E. P. (2006), Sensory adaptation within a Bayesian framework for perception, Adv. Neur. Inf. Proc. Syst. (NIPS 05'), vol. 18, 1291–1298
  • Stocker, A. and Simoncelli, E. (2009), Visual motion aftereffects arise from a casacade of two isomorphic adaptation algorithms, Journal of Vision, 9
  • Watson A.B. and Solomon J.“A model of visual contrast gain control and pattern masking,” JOSA A, vol. 14, pp. 2379–2391, 1997.
  • Weiss, Y., Simoncelli, E. P., and Adelson, E. H. (2002), Motion illusions as optimal percepts, Nature Neuroscience, 3, 598–604

Data: natural movies, natural visual textures, and natural colors

These are the original sources of the natural scene data used to train the algorithm.

Natural Movies
Patches of natural movies were necessary as training set to optimize the response of motion sensors to derive the motion aftereffect .
We used the achromatic channel of undistorted -raw- videos from standard databases on subjective video quality):

VQEG database
LIVE database
PCA functions of natural video

Natural Images
Patches of natural images were used as training set to (1) optimize the response of texture sensors to derive the texture aftereffect, (2) design image representations for nonlinear ICA or optimal transform coding, and (3) check the convergence of SPCA transform in texture data -technicality not shown in the paper-. We used the luminance channel of the colorimetrically calibrated McGill database:

Sample Images
First PCA basis functions

Natural Colors
Natural colors were necessary as training set to (1) optimize the response of color sensors to derive the color aftereffect, and (2) check the convergence of SPCA transform in color data -technicality not shown in the paper-.
We used tristimulus vectors gathered from colorimetrically calibrated images of the Image Processing Lab (IPL) database:

d a

The code to reproduce the results in the paper either requires preprocesed data subsets from the above sources (when preprocessing is straighforward), or includes routines to read the raw data and rearrange it as required in each experiment.

You may download all the required data in a single data file:
... or download the data required for specific experiments in separate data files:

Matlab Code

This is the code to reproduce all the results in the paper "Visual Aftereffects from biased Scene Statistics". Before running a specific experiment, make sure you downloaded the required data and the general purpose toolbox (if required). You can try the all-in-one version (yellow box).

All Experiments

All required Data

All required Code

All experiments in the paper
mat (4.7 GByte!)

Specific toolbox:
see show_data.m

Required general-purpose toolboxes:
SPCA site           

Specific Experiments

Required Data

Required Code

Generation of aftereffects

(1 GByte!)

if not used, not a major problem: only synthetic textures are shown

Specific toolbox:
see visual_aftereffects.m

Required general-purpose toolboxes (for motion and color calibration):

Classical explanation example:
motion aftereffect from divisive normalization

Specific toolbox (with data):  (180 MBytes)
see motion_aftereffect_div_norm.m

Required general-purpose toolbox (calibrated motion and 3d-FFT):

Motion aftereffects from SPCA
  (3.6 GByte!)

Specific toolbox:

Required general-purpose toolboxes:
SPCA site           

Color aftereffects from SPCA 
  (47 MByte!)

Specific toolbox:
see  show_color_results.m

Required general-purpose toolboxes:
SPCA site           
ColorLab site      

Texture aftereffects from SPCA
  (1 GByte!)

Specific toolbox:
see texture_masking_experiments.m

Required general-purpose toolboxes:
SPCA site           

Image coding:
infomax vs error minimization
in visual texture  (1 GByte!)

Specific toolbox:
see image_coding_experiments.m

Required general-purpose toolboxes:
SPCA site           

SPCA dimensionality reduction
(tech. issue not included in the paper)

Specific toolbox:
see dimens_reduct_experiments.m

Required general-purpose toolboxes:
SPCA site           

SPCA convergence and accuracy
(tech. issue not included in the paper)
(functions to generate 2d and 3d data)

Specific toolbox:
see convergence_experiment.m

Required general-purpose toolboxes:
SPCA site